Articles of Confederation

The compact which was made by the original thirteen states of the United States of America, bore the name of the “Articles of Confederation and perpetual union between, the states of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.” It was adopted and went into force on the first day of March, 1781, and remained as the supreme law until the first Wednesday of March, 1789. 5 Wheat. R. 420.  

Articles of Confederation (Agreed to by Congress November 15, 1777; ratified and in force, March 1, 1781) (Whereas the Delegates of the United States of America in Congress assembled did on the fifteenth day of November in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy Seven, … In Witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands in Congress. Done at Philadelphia in the state of Pennsylvania the ninth Day of July in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy-eight, and in the third year of the Independence of America.);…

Constitutional Con? 11 Hidden Facts: The Founding Fathers needed permission from the Congress of the Confederation, “the powers that be” of that day in order to hold the 1787 Philadelphia constitutional convention. On February 21, 1787, the Congress of the Confederation delivered a resolution authorizing a Philadelphia constitutional convention but with an important limitation: “for the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation and reporting to Congress and the several legislatures.”

This new Constitution, however, per the Articles of Confederation, had not been created by “mutual consent” and therefore could not lawfully replace the Articles of Confederation.

The continental convention in direct violation of the 13th article of confederation, have declared ‘that the ratification of nine states shall be sufficient for the establishment of this constitution, between the states so ratifying the same.’—Thus has the plighted faith of the states been sported with! They had solemnly engaged that the confederation now subsisting should be inviolably preserved by each of them, and the union thereby formed. Should be perpetual, unless the same should be altered by mutual consent. — “The Address and Reasons of Dissent of the Minority of the Convention of Pennsylvania to their Constituents,” December 12, 1787 (emphasis added)

The Constitution of the United States, signed September 17, 1787, was deemed ratified June 21, 1788 by only nine states instead of the unanimous ratification of all 13 states required by the Articles of Confederation. Thereafter, a new, centralized U.S. Government was formed, disregarding the original, decentralized American jurisdiction of state legislatures established soon after the American Revolution.

Also in June of 1788 at the Virginia Conference, orator and Anti-Federalist, Patrick Henry, exposed the political tactics of propaganda he believed the Federalists had used to win over the public. The Framers had pandered to the people in order to get their way, he said, by convincing the people, that under a new constitution, democracy would mean the government belonged to them. Henry also exposed the deception when Framer’s used the phrase, “We, the people” in the preamble to the Constitution.

Who authorized them to speak the language, ‘We, the people’, instead of ‘We, the states?’ . . . That they exceed their powers is perfectly clear . . . The Federal Convention ought to have amended the old system; for this purpose they were solely delegated; the object of their mission extended to no other consideration. — Patrick Henry, June 4, 1788

As the saying goes, the rest is history. The Constitution of 1787 and the U.S. Government it formed was an illegitimate (unauthorized) takeover of the original American jurisdiction. One (of many) proofs is that nowhere since have the Articles of Confederation been lawfully repealed in writing. The outcome? Americans who no longer suffer as indentured-servant subjects of the British monarchy now suffer as indentured-servant subjects of a United States beholden to an obscured corporate-banking cartel. It’s just a newfangled monarchy centuries in the making and thanks to the Constitution con. …
N.B. Organic Laws of the United States of America: Revised Statutes of 1873: 43rd Congress, 1st Session
Volume 18, Part 1 (Organic Laws of the United States of America); Comprised of: Declaration of Independence (1776); Articles of Confederation (1781); Northwest Ordinance (13th day of July, in the year of our Lord 1787, and of their sovereignty and independence the twelfth); Constitution of the United States (1787);


Former laws continued in force. Cf. Antecedent; Construction; Doctrine of interposition; Preservation of Rights;

Constitution of the United States of America, Article 1, § 10, Clause 1; Constitution of Oregon (1857) Article I, § 21 (Impairing the obligation of contracts);

Constitution of rhe United States of America, Art. 6 Cl. 1 (1787) (All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.);

Constitution of the State of Oregon (1857) Article 18, Section 7 (Former laws continued in force) (All laws in force in the Territory of Oregon when this Constitution takes effect, and consistent therewith, shall continue in force until altered, or repealed.);

One thought on “Articles of Confederation

  1. Perhaps you could elaborate on Article 6, Clause 1, by defining ‘engagements’. This appears to specifically state that the Articles of Confederation remain in full force and effect.

Join the Conversation

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *